Aeolian Sand and Sand Dunes

Kenneth Pye

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Some of this work has been summarized in review papers and edited conference proceedings, but this book provides the rst attempt to review the whole eld of aeolian sand research.

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Marc Notes: Reprint of the ed.: London; Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.; Includes bibliographical references and index. Table of Contents: 1. The Nature and Importance of Aeolian Sand Research -- 1.1. Definitions -- 1.2. Previous Work -- 1.3. Future Research Requirements -- 2. The Nature of Airflow -- 2.1. Physical Properties of Air and the Earth's Atmosphere -- 2.1.1. The Nature of Air as a Gas -- 2.1.2. Composition of the Lower Atmosphere -- 2.1.3. Vertical Gradient of Temperature and Stability of the Atmosphere -- 2.2. Nature and Types of Air Motion -- 2.2.1. Horizontal Air Motion -- 2.2.2. The Global Atmospheric Circulation -- 2.3. Storm Types that Generate Sand-Transporting Winds -- 2.3.1. The Energy of Violent Storms -- 2.3.2. Atmospheric Stability and Instability in Subtropical Deserts -- 2.3.3. Dust Devils -- 2.3.4. Squalls -- 2.3.5. Wind Regimes in the World's Deserts -- 2.3.6. Coastal Wind Regimes -- 2.4. Flow in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer -- 2.4.1. Viscosity, Reynolds Number and Their Effect on the Airflow -- 2.4.2. Variation of Wind Velocity with Height -- 2.4.3. Continuity of Airflow: Bernoulli Equation and Separation of Flow -- 2.4.4. The Drag Force -- 2.4.5. Airflow over Isolated Hills and Complex Terrain -- 3. Characteristics of Windblown Sediments -- 3.1. General Properties of Sediment Grains -- 3.1.1. Concepts of Grain Size -- 3.1.2. Grain Size Scales -- 3.1.3. Grain Mass and Density -- 3.1.4. Graphical Presentation of Grain Size Data -- 3.1.5. Graphical Statistical Parameters -- 3.1.6. Moment Parameters -- 3.1.7. Bivariate Plots and Statistical Analysis of Grain Size Parameters -- 3.1.8. Log-Hyperbolic Parameters -- 3.2. Grain Shape -- 3.2.1. Grain Form -- 3.2.2. Grain Roundness -- 3.2.3. Grain Surface Texture -- 3.2.4. Two-Dimensional Analysis of Digitized Grain Outlines -- 3.2.5. Behavioural Indicators of Grain Shape -- 3.2.6. Controls on the Shape of Sand Grains -- 3.3. Porosity, Permeability, and Packing of Sands -- 3.4. Grain Size Characteristics of Aeolian Sediments -- 3.4.1. The Nature of Aeolian Sediments -- 3.4.2. Differentiation Between Aeolian Dune and Other Environments -- 3.4.3. Grain Size Variations Within Dune Fields and on Individual Dunes -- 3.5. Shape Characteristics of Aeolian Dune Sands -- 3.6. Surface Textures of Aeolian Sands -- 3.7. Porosity and Permeability of Aeolian Sands -- 3.8. Sources and Mineral Composition of Aeolian Dune Sand -- 3.8.1. Weathering and Erosion of Crustal Rocks -- 3.8.2. Formation of Sand-Size Particles in the Near-Surface Environment -- 3.8.2.1. Gypsum Sands -- 3.8.2.2. Clay Pellets -- 3.8.2.3. Volcaniclastic Sands -- 3.8.2.4. Carbonic Ooids and Peloids -- 3.8.3. Formation of Biogenic Carbonic Sand -- 4. Mechanics of Aeolian Sand Transport -- 4.1. Particle Entrainment -- 4.1.1. Forces Exerted on Static Grains by the Wind -- 4.1.2. Threshold of Grain Movement -- 4.1.3. Impact Threshold -- 4.1.4. Threshold Velocities for Poorly Sorted Sediments -- 4.1.5. Effect of Bed Slope on Threshold Velocity -- 4.1.6. Effect of Moisture Content and Cementing Agents on Threshold Velocity -- 4.1.7. Effects of Non-Erodible Roughness Elements and Vegetation on Particle Entrainment -- 4.2. Transport of Particles by the Wind -- 4.2.1. Aeolian Transport Modes -- 4.2.2. Suspension -- 4.2.3. Saltation -- 4.2.4. Wind Velocity Profile During Saltation -- 4.2.5. Contact Load(Surface Creep) -- 4.2.6. Sand Transport Rate -- 4.2.7. Avalanching of Sand on Dune Slip Faces -- 5. The Formation of Sand Seas and Dune Fields -- 5.1. Definition of Sand Seas and Dune Fields -- 5.2. Global Distribution of Sand Seas -- 5.3. Factors Controlling the Distribution and Magnitude of Sand Seas -- 5.3.1. Sand Sources and Dune Field Development -- 5.3.2. Relationship Between Sand Deposits and Climate -- 5.3.3. Time Required for the Development of Ergs and Dune Fields -- 5.4. Development of Sand Seas in Relation to Topography -- 5.5. Wind Regime and Regional Sand Flow Paths -- 5.6. Evolution of Ergs in Response to Climatic Changes -- 5.7. Effect of Sea-Level Changes on Coastal Dune Fields -- 5.8. Effect of Sea-Level Changes on Continental Dune Fields -- 6. Aeolian Bed Forms -- 6.1. Types of Aeolian Sand Accumulation and Bed Form Terminology -- 6.2. Ripples -- 6.2.1. The General Nature of Sand Ripples -- 6.2.2. Effect of Wind Velocity and Grain Size on Aeolian Ripple Development -- 6.2.3. Models of Ripple Formation -- 6.2.4. Adhesion Ripples -- 6.3. Sand Dunes -- 6.3.1. Classification of Sand Dunes and Other Aeolian Sand Accumulations -- 6.3.2. Dune Accumulation Influenced by Topographic Obstacles -- 6.3.2.1. Lee Dunes -- 6.3.2.2. Echo Dunes -- 6.3.2.3. Cliff-Top Dunes -- 6.3.3. Formation of Self-Accumulated Dunes -- 6.3.3.1. Dune Initiation -- 6.3.3.2. Development of a Steady-State Dune Profile -- 6.3.3.3. Flow Separation and the Development of a Dune Slip-Face -- 6.3.4. Simple Barchans and Transverse Barchanoid Ridges -- 6.3.5. Linear Dunes -- 6.3.5.1. Development of Self Dunes -- 6.3.5.2. Oblique Dunes -- 6.3.6. Star Dunes -- 6.3.7. Dome Dunes -- 6.4. Vegetated Dunes -- 6.4.1. Hummock Dunes -- 6.4.2. Parabolic and Elongate Parabolic Dunes -- 6.4.3. Precipitation Ridges -- 6.4.4. Lunette Dunes -- 6.4.5. Vegetated Linear Dunes -- 6.5. Sand Sheets -- 6.5.1. Warm Climate Sand Sheets -- 6.5.2. Zibar -- 6.5.3. Cold Climate Sand Sheets -- 6.6. Summary of Factors Determining the Morphology of Aeolian Sand Accumulations -- 7. Internal Sedimentary Structures of Aeolian Sand Deposits -- 7.1. Introduction -- 7.2. Internal Structures of Sand Dunes -- 7.2.1. Primary Structural Features Common on Most Dune Types -- 7.2.2. Internal Structure of Barchans -- 7.2.3. Internal Structure of Transverse Dunes -- 7.2.4. Internal Structure of Seif Dunes -- 7.2.5. Internal Structure of Unvegetated Dome Dunes -- 7.2.6. Internal Structure of of Reversing Dunes and Star Dunes -- 7.2.7. Internal Structure of Shadow Dunes -- 7.2.8. Internal Structure of Vegetated Coastal Dunes -- 7.2.9. Internal Structure of Parabolic Dunes -- 7.2.10. Nature of Origin of Bounding Surface -- 7.3. Secondary Sedimentary Structures in Dunes -- 7.4. Sedimentary Structures of Inter-dune Areas and Sand Sheets -- 7.4.1. Inter-dune Areas -- 7.4.2. Extra-Dune Sand Sheets -- 7.5. Niveo-Aeolian Deposits and Cryogenic Structures in Cold-Climate Dunes -- 8. Post-Depositional Modification of Dune Sands -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.2. Denudation by Rain Splash, Surface Wash, Soil Creep, and Gullying -- 8.3. Near-Surface Compaction -- 8.4. Addition of Allochthonous Components -- 8.5. Weathering and Pedogenesis of Siliceous Dune Sands -- 8.5.1. Leaching of Soluble Salts and Carbonates -- 8.5.2. Chemical Weathering of Silicates and Oxides -- 8.5.3. Heavy Minerals -- 8.5.3.1. Feldspars -- 8.5.3.2. Quartz -- 8.5.4. Physical Weathering Processes -- 8.5.5. Chemical Weathering and Reddening of Siliciclastic Dune Sands -- 8.5.6. Silica Coatings and Cementation -- 8.5.7. Formation of Soil Profiles in Dune Sands -- 8.5.8. Podsolization and Humate Cementation -- 8.6. Formation of Carbonate Aeolianites -- 8.6.1. Definition and Occurence of Aeolianites -- 8.6.2. Controls on Carbonate Cementation in Aeolianties -- 8.6.2.1. Effects on Carbonate Mineralogy -- 8.6.2.2. Effects of Rainfall and Evaporation -- 8.6.2.3. Effects of Vegetation -- 8.6.3. Calcrete Horizons in Carbonate Dune Sands -- 8.6.4. Karstification of Aeolianties -- 8.6.5. Relationship Between Aeolianites and Red Soils -- 8.6.6. Regressive Diagenesis of Aeolianities -- 8.7. Early Diagenetic Cementation by Evaporite Minerals -- 9. Management and Human Use of Sand Dune Environments -- 9.1. Thermal Properties of Sand, Moisture Regime, and Vegetation Growth -- 9.1.1. Thermal Properties -- 9.1.2. Sand Moisture Regime -- 9.1.3. Other Factors Which Influence Dune Vegetation -- 9.2. Water Courses in Dune Areas -- 9.3. Control of Windblown Sand -- 9.3.1. Reduction of Sand Supply -- 9.3.1.1. Surface Stabilization by Mulches -- 9.3.1.2. Physical Barries to Airflow -- 9.3.1.3. Restriction of Human Activity in Potential Sand Source Areas -- 9.3.2. Enhancement of Sand Transport -- 9.3.3. Diversion of Moving Sand -- 9.3.4. Enhancement of Sand Deposition -- 9.3.4.1. Sand Fences -- 9.3.4.2. Sand Ditches -- 9.3.4.3. Vegetation Planting -- 9.3.4.4. Combined Stabilization Methods -- 9.3.5. Control of Moving Dunes -- 9.4. Human Use of Sand Dune Areas -- 9.4.1. Cultivation on Desert Sand -- 9.4.2. Cultivation and Grazing on Coastal Dunes -- 9.4.3. Urban Development and Recreational Activities -- 9.4.4. Sand Mining -- 9.4.5. Dunes and Water Supply -- 9.4.6. Coastal Dunes as Natural Sea Defences -- 10. Aeolian Research Techniques -- 10.1. Wind Tunnel Studies -- 10.2. Measurement of Sand Movement Using Sand Traps -- 10.2.1. Horizontal Sand Traps -- 10.2.2. Vertical Sand Traps -- 10.2.3. Surface Creep Traps -- 10.3. Sand Tracer Techniques -- 10.4. Methods of Sample Collection for Grain Size and Mineralogical Analysis -- 10.5. Methods of Determining the Grain Size of Sands -- 10.5.1. Sieving -- 10.5.1.1. Sample Pretreatment -- 10.5.1.2. Dry Sieving -- 10.5.1.3. Wet Sieving -- 10.5.2. Settling Tube Analysis -- 10.5.3. Electro-Optical Methods of Size Analysis -- 10.5.4. Direct Measurement of Grain Size by Image Analysis -- 10.6. Charcterization of Airflow -- 10.6.1. Wind Velocity Measurements -- 10.6.2. Flow Visualization -- 10.7. Methods of Monitoring Changes in Sand Dune Terrain -- 10.7.1. Field Surveys -- 10.7.2. Remote Sensing -- 10.7.3. Sand Dating Methods -- Appendix: SI Units and c.g.s. equivalents References -- Index. Publisher Marketing: It is more than half a century since the publication of R. A. Bagnold s classic book The physics of blown sand and desert dunes, and it is a tribute to the quality of Bagnold s work that many of the fundamental principles which he developed - main valid today. His book continues to be essential reading for any serious s- dent of aeolian processes. However, the past two decades have seen an explosion in the scale of research dealing with aeolian transport processes, sediments, and landforms. Some of this work has been summarized in review papers and edited conference proceedings, but this book provides the rst attempt to review the whole eld of aeolian sand research. Inevitably, it has not been possible to cover all - pects in equal depth, and the balance of included material naturally re ects the - thors own interests to a signi cant degree. However, our aim has been to provide as broad a perspective as possible, and to provide an entry point to an extensive mul- disciplinary scienti c literature, some of which has not been given the attention it deserves in earlier textbooks and review papers. Many examples are drawn from existing published work, but the book also makes extensive use of our own research in the Middle East, Australia, Europe, and North America. The book has been written principally for use by advanced undergraduates, po- graduates, and more senior research workers in geomorphology and sedimentology."

Contributor Bio:  Pye, Kenneth Professor Ken Pye is an internationally renowned geomorphologist and sedimentologist who is the author or co-author of numerous books and journal articles. In addition to his current role as Director of Kenneth Pye Associates Ltd he has held academic appointments at the universities of Cambridge, Reading and Royal Holloway, London. Currently he is also a Visiting Professor at the School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Southampton. His books include Aeolian Dust and Dust Deposits (1987), Aeolian Sand and Sand Dunes (2009), Saltmarshes (Cambridge University Press, 1992) and Sediment Transport and Depositional Processes (1994).

Medie Bøger     Hardcover bog   (Bog med hård ryg og stift omslag)
Udgave 1st ed. 1990. 2nd printing 2009 edition
Udgivet Tyskland, 01/10-2008
ISBN13 9783540859093
Forlag Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gm
Antal sider 458
Mål 235 × 155 × 26 mm
Vægt 875 gram
Sprog Engelsk